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Improved Manifold Writer

 Single Item
JL 1008

  • Request
An 'Improved Manifold Writer' made by F. Fölsch of 327 Oxford Street, London. Contained in a green morocco leather wallet (approximately 22cm x 25cm) bordered with a gilt Greek key design, with lock and original key. The red morocco leather interior houses a loose metal plate, a piece of flat wood, 4to volume of blank paper, and sewn housing for implements (five different styli present: two metal-tipped styli with handles; a dipping pen with a second nib attached (the nib is labelled 'William Mitchell No. 2.'); a double-tipped stylus; a stylus with a turned ball end; a spatula; and a cylindrical wooden tubular container with slip-off cap).

The 'Improved Manifold Writer' is an early method of duplicating handwritten pages. Fölsch patented a design in 1809 for a pen with its own ink supply (one of the first examples of the fountain pen) [it is possible that the metal pen with the Mitchell nib in this set is a later substitution for the original Fölsch pen]. On the volume of blank paper, Fölsch describes himself as 'inventor and patentee of improved manifold writers'.


  • c.1810s-1820s


1 box

Language of Materials

  • English

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Preferred Citation

Oxford, Bodleian Libraries [followed by shelfmark and folio or page reference, e.g. JL 1008].
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JL 1008

Collection ID (for staff)

CMD ID 9672


Improved Manifold Writer, c.1810s-1820s.

Biographical / Historical

Frederick Bartholomew Fölsch (fl.1809) was a merchant and inventor.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Purchased from Samuel Gedge Ltd., May 2014.

Related Materials

Bodleian Libraries
  1. MS. Pigott d. 31 - A copy of Ralph Wedgwood's Patent Manifold Writer, slightly used, with some scribbling, written in about 1830-1840.
  2. JL 1009 - Nocto-Via-Polygraph Stylographic Manifold Writer, c.1810.
Catalogue of Improved Manifold Writer, c.1810s-1820s
Finding aid prepared by Rachael Marsay
Language of description
Script of description

Repository Details

Part of the Bodleian Libraries Repository

Weston Library
Broad Street
Oxford OX1 3BG United Kingdom